Inclusive Design Thesis
Providing Accessibility Through Visual Design for People who are Blind
Table of Contents
- Delivery Services
- Online Shopping
- Traditional Retail Shopping
- Shelf Design
- Looking Forward
- Appendix A: Visual Design Outcomes
This research considers the need for designers to provide access for people who are blind, the relevant conditions for access, and the processes of production for creating a design that offers simultaneous access to those with sight and those without. Issues of access for an independent lifestyle are examined through research and primary accounts in the form of interviews. This information provides a platform to begin to understand the barriers for the blind and the understanding of human senses that is vital to the advancement of accessible design.
In 2002 the United States Bureau of the Census cited that 7.7 million Americans over the age of 15 have difficulty seeing and 1.8 million Americans could not see at all. Despite this large number, their inclusion in mass communication remains inadequate for an independent lifestyle. The disregard of this population is evidenced by omission. To even speak of the disabled as having rights is a recent concept. Much of the progress made in the United States has been in the last 100 years and largely as a result of military engagement. A 1920s study of “feeble-mindedness” through the Kallikak family reveals much about the perception of the disabled at that time. The book on this family, written after two years of study of a northeast family by Henry Herbert Goodard, begins with discussion of a woman in his own institution, the New Jersey Home, and traces lineage from her through the entire Kallikak family. His conclusions on the two lines in the family are as follows:
“That we are dealing with a problem of true heredity, no one can doubt, for, although of the descendants of Martin Kallikak Jr. many married into feeble-minded families and thus brought in more bad blood, yet Martin Jr. himself married a normal woman, thus demonstrating that the defect is transmitted through the father, at least in this generation.” 
This passage evidences both the attitudes towards and perceptions of the disabled prevalent in the nation at that time. Strong adjectives address disability as “feeble-minded”, “bad blood”, and “defect”. There is no compassion or acceptance of the individuals; their value is discarded as bad lineage. Further evidence of this attitude is revealed in the 1927 U.S. Supreme Court ruling of Buck v Bell. This ruling allowed the forced sterilization of the disabled, upholding that to do so was not a violation of their constitutional rights. The effects of the case rippled across the country as thirty states added new sterilization laws. It is estimated that nearly 65,000 Americans were sterilized without their consent as a result of this ruling.  This attitude of the disabled as subhuman was prevalent throughout the United States for both the mentally and physically disabled. The same approach, driven by ignorance, had not begun to change until recently, and though society is evolving in its views of the disabled, driving discrimination still persists. The major shift in the regard and treatment of the disabled came as an effect of war. Following each of the major wars, many veterans returned home to the United States with physical disabilities as a result of their service. No longer were they considered outsiders but viewed rather as war heroes.
Later trends in the attitudes towards the disabled can be seen through laws enacted, and consequently, it is useful to examine the legislature as it pertains to disabilities. Initially, following World War I this came in the form of veteran disability pensions and benefits as Congress made efforts to provide for veterans through care and rehabilitation efforts. Successive legislature resulted from each war—World War I, World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War— adapting to contemporary treatments and rehabilitations. Although the efforts and laws were focused on the care of veterans, the language used was adapted in 1990 under The Americans with Disabilities Act providing rights for all people with disabilities.
Prior to 1990 progress was seen through the American Civil Rights Act of 1964 which prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, religion, ethnicity, national origin, creed, and later, gender. While not specifically addressing disabilities, this became the basis of non-discrimination work that did address the inclusion of all those with disabilities.
Disabilities came to the attention of the world in 1981 as the United Nations designated it the International Year of Disabled Persons. The theme of the year was “full participation and equality” with the objectives of “increasing public awareness; understanding and acceptance of persons who are disabled; and encouraging persons with disabilities to form organizations through which they can express their views and promote action to improve their situation”. The International Year of Disabled Persons called for a plan of action at the national, regional, and international levels. For the first time treatment of those with disabilities and accommodations for them were considered on an international scope. The greatest outcome of the yearlong effort was the creation of the World Programme of Action (WPA). The WPA is focused on “disability prevention, rehabilitation, and equalization of opportunities, which pertains to full participation of persons with disabilities in social life and national development. They also emphasize the need to approach disability from a human rights perspective.”
The efforts of the WPA certainly had an effect on the United States. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), a civil rights law, was passed in 1990 prohibiting discrimination in the United States against people with disabilities. The ADA was a major step towards inclusiveness for the disabled, particularly people who are blind, guaranteeing equal treatment for all people. The ADA applies to privately owned businesses, requiring those businesses to be accessible to people who are blind. This is regularly done with the addition of Braille to label elevator numbers, room names, and numbers, or offer other types of assistance through employees.
Originally the ADA appeared to apply only to physical brick and mortar establishments, but this application is changing. Websites, in particular, are coming under the scrutiny of ADA regulations as numerous legal victories are being won, revealing higher demands and a longer reach of the law. One California lawyer, Thomas Frankovich, has filed between 1,500 and 1,800 ADA lawsuits since 1994. Though most of these suits address the modifications of physical structures, their outcomes are having a direct impact on graphic design. In immediate correlation, signage that is not accessible is prosecutable. The law requires that permanent room signs, directional signs, overhead signs, and projecting signs meet certain standards of typography, finish, and contrast. For viewing purposes, there is a standard on character proportion demanding a width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke-width-to-height ratio between 1:5 and 1:10. The finish must be matte so that reflecting light does not affect readability for those with low vision. Similarly, characters and symbols must have high contrast from their background. In addition to these design considerations, permanent room signs (rooms that have walls and doors, not including individual cubicles) must also include Braille labels with a minimum raised height of ⅝ inch. Designers creating this type of architectural signage must be aware of the requirements and meet the ADA standards for the disabled.
In addition to the ADA, the law has extended past physical objects to the online environment. Technology was booming in the 1990s and fortunately, the government was aware of trends. To tackle a broad scope of technology, Section 508 of the Workforce Rehabilitation Act was amended in 1998, only a few years after websites began to be commonplace. This amendment includes a statement that requires websites of Federal agencies and those who receive Federal funding to be accessible to persons with disabilities, including people who are blind. Section 508 currently has no direct relevance to public, non-government websites, but even so, businesses and organizations are being held legally accountable for these guidelines by groups of private citizens like the National Federation of the Blind (NFB). These groups are taking legal action against institutions that are not providing people who are blind access to their online materials.
Non-government websites are losing battles requiring them to invest heavy funding to compensate for their omission of people who are blind, and inevitably these ramifications will come to bear in print as well. Perhaps the largest public ADA lawsuit concerning a website was in 2009 between NFB and the Target Corporation. The NFB filed suit claiming that Target’s website was not accessible. Target initially requested the case be dropped on grounds that the current laws (Section 508 and the Americans with Disabilities Act) did not apply to a corporate website. The judge, however, ruled in favor of the NFB, citing the intimate correlation between physical Target stores and their online store. That connection made it necessary for the website to offer the same accessibility as the store itself. The ruling brought great financial consequences to Target: $6,000,000 in damages to the claimants, $210,000 to the NFB for certification and monitoring of compliance over three years, mandated accessibility training for each of their web developers at a cost of $15,000 a person, and the potential to pay legal fees which are yet to be determined.
Though Target’s suit was in conjunction with a website, the case effectively stretched the extent of the law, paving the way for further expansion that likely will include print and other areas of design. The website was condemned in reference to the relationship between the physical stores because it allows individuals to purchase products in a different manner. In this case, the website offers a range of products that are not available in stores. Without an accessible website, those products are entirely unavailable to people who are blind. This ruling will extend further to stores that have no storefront like Amazon. The products they offer are only available online. Should the same standards that apply to brick-and-mortar businesses apply to online businesses?
In addition to Target’s corporate website, higher education has recently been under scrutiny of ADA requirements. In November 2010 the NFB filed suit against Pennsylvania State University, a multi-campus public research university in Pennsylvania. The case cites the inaccessibility of departmental websites, library catalogs, and course-management software. Ironically enough, even the website for the Office of Disability Services is not accessible. The NFB has requested that Penn State write clear accessibility policies, conduct an accessibility audit, and hire an accessibility coordinator. In reaction to the lawsuit, Penn State admitted no wrongdoing but did agree to implement a plan to make all electronic information accessible to people who are blind. While the outcome of litigation was not as drastic as the case against Target, it does point towards an increasing trend in legal action that demands access for people who are blind. The Penn State lawsuit comes on the heels of last year’s suit against Arizona State University for their use of Amazon’s Kindle e-reader in classrooms. The Kindle lacks audible menus, making navigation of content impossible for people who are blind.
These two cases against higher education, along with the Target case, present a trend towards change through litigation. Access to information—whether products, course information, or books—is a human right, and to discriminate against people who are blind is a violation of that right. Most corporations and institutions do not purposefully discriminate. They often do so out of ignorance rather than malice. Whatever the intent, the only way to eliminate ignorance and institutional discrimination is to effect anti-discrimination legislation.
While these three cases center around websites, the implications extend to print as well. Accessibility was required because the websites have strong connections to the brick and mortar establishments themselves. Therefore, it seems that if any element of business or organization is connected to the physical structure, compliance with ADA is required. Direct mail pieces, printed advertisements, and catalogs that supplement store sales would likely need to be accessible. In regards to the information provided by institutions of higher education, much is not available online and must be attained through print. Will these pieces be the next area to come under scrutiny? The outcomes of these cases substantiate both the legal and financial ramifications of accessible graphic design. In order to avoid these consequences, it is helpful to understand the physiological conditions that exist. Through an understanding of the human senses, it is easier to develop solutions that communicate without requiring sight.
In the United States, many aspects of day-to-day life are directed by and rely upon visual information, impeding the independence of people who are blind and forcing them to depend on others to function and to survive. Some aspects of design are already expanding to accommodate these individuals: offering Braille alternatives for books and architectural wayfinding; providing emergency notifications through sound;., and the audible reading of digital material, particularly for website access. Mudd Graphic Design Resources, LLC is a design firm in Jeffersonville, Indiana works towards accessibility in their designs. They specialize in building accessible websites for people who are blind and work closely with the American Printing House for the Blind in Louisville, Kentucky to incorporate Braille into print design. Companies like Mudd are not widespread, nor do they delve into the multitude of applications that direct and inform viewers through visual data. Product packaging, directional signage, and environmental design – just to name a few – remain mostly visual, ignoring altogether those who cannot see. Research of sociological patterns and current trends will illustrate the case for creating accessibility for people who are blind and biological research opens up avenues for innovation in design.
In consideration of the historical prejudice, laws, and litigation cited in the Background section of this paper the study of discrimination and of sociological inequity is imperative for designers to gain an understanding of the need for accessibility to information. Inequity is apparent in individualized instances, but more problematically, is woven into the fabric of our society. The abbreviated history communicated previously in this paper offers a glimpse into the patterns and views society has held towards the disabled, but to understand the application of graphic design for people who are blind, the system that supports discrimination and limited access must be examined. The pervasive views of U.S. culture are significant and must be viewed as a national system of privilege that offers access based upon ability or disability.
Privilege is defined as “a right or immunity granted as a peculiar benefit, advantage, or favor”. More specifically in application to the disabled, the “right or immunity” granted is done so because someone belongs to a specific group, not because of anything they have done or failed to do. Those who have the ability are generally granted wider access to information and resources than those individuals who do not. Those with sight have done nothing to gain the privilege of vision and subsequently access to information. Similarly, those without sight have done nothing to deserve the denial of the same information.
Systems of privilege are always in relation to others. To examine the treatment and disadvantage of people who are blind, the sighted must also be scrutinized. Peggy McIntosh is a feminist, well-known for her 1988 essay on privilege, White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies. In this essay, she speaks of this corollary relationship:
One factor seems clear about all of the interlocking oppressions. They take both active forms which we can see and embedded forms which as a member of the dominant group one is taught not to see.
The “embedded” form McIntosh references is often the most pervasive and difficult to overcome. It is also the form of oppression most relevant to designers. Designers are inherently visual people, creating designs that adhere to visual principles of design. They are also predominantly sighted and as the dominant group, often oblivious to the unintentional oppression, their work creates for those without sight.
Each day the physical environment for residents of the United States includes visual messages that instruct, inform, and caution those who are able to see. Such information literally has the power to move and protect those with access to it. To deny those without sight access is to oppress and discriminate based upon their disability. The other side of the situation offers a hopeful alternative: to grant access to those without sight is to lift that oppression and offer independence to an entire group of people. Alternatives for communication come through other sensory experiences addressed in the following section.
The following addresses processes for communicating through the senses of hearing, smell, taste, and touch. People who are not blind have often relied upon sight and may not be as keenly aware of the messages they receive through the other four senses. Whether or not they are perceived, the capacity of the brain to compensate for areas of deficit makes communication to the other senses much easier—the four functioning senses are heightened in response to the lack of sight. Adaptations to a lack of sight occur within days rendering these heightened senses almost immediate. How each of these senses functions and the particular strengths of each is significant. Within each second of the day, there are millions of signals communicating with the brain, notifying it of what the body is doing and feeling. The nervous system deciphers each communication, responding through specialized neurons. Bundles of these specialized neurons create nerve formations that connect organs to each other, network the nervous system with other organ systems, and forward electrical and chemical signals to each other. When stimuli are detected by the sensory receptors the messages are transferred via sensory neurons to the brain.
There is a vast distinction between descriptive processes (sensation) and interpretive processes (perception). The sensations are perceived through the various sense organs, but perception happens when those impulses are transferred to the brain. This distinction is most important in determining methods of communication using sensory stimuli. Communication demands interpretive processes. Without perception, meaning cannot be understood.
Each method of sensory application presented here is a commercial application, utilizing technology and processes intended to be mass-produced. The availability of the technologies makes the associated costs affordable. Certainly, cost is a factor to manufacturers and must be a consideration for designers. The minimal cost added to each piece must be considered as a marketing expense, just as the printing of the piece itself is an expense of providing the information.
Finally, to consider techniques that add depth of meaning through the senses of hearing, smell, taste, and touch require a fundamental awareness that communicative devices center around understanding and frequency. Understanding means an appreciation that data is only data until meaning is taught and applied to it. This is to suggest that the addition of sensory information to any design will only hold meaning once the meaning is taught. The alphabet is but a series of lines and curves without an understanding of language. It is also necessary to consider the frequency of introduced sensory stimuli, as the senses are each attentive to change. Sense perception is dependent upon change because it might mean threat or prospect, and likewise, an unchanging stimulus ceases to be perceived. Take for example the perception of the shirt on your back. When first putting on your shirt you notice the texture of the fabric and the weight of the garment. As you go through your day, however, these sensations disappear, and rarely are you aware that you are wearing the shirt at all. If your perception of the garment were to sustain at the same level as initial perception, it would become maddening, competing for attention and consciousness.
Hearing is perhaps the most important sense used to communicate to people who are blind because it is the best distance sense. A distance sense can be perceived from far away and does not require a person to have direct contact to receive and understand stimuli. Three different characteristics of sound influence what is realized when heard: the loudness or amplitude, pitch or frequency, and the tone quality or waveform. The human ear understands different frequencies to varying degrees. If two frequencies of the same amplitude are played, one may sound louder than the other. Likewise, very low frequencies are understood as vibrations rather than sound. The range of actual sound perceptions is between 20-20,000 cps. Sounds must be within the range of perception or else their communicative properties are null.
Hearing is also the most attuned of the distances senses because of the presence of two ears on each side of the head. The two ears allow for directional information to be derived by processing which side of the head perceives sound first. This is called binaural processing. Binaural processing makes it possible for humans to perform echolocation, understanding by sound alone detailed properties of an object: horizontal position, relative distance, relative size, general shape, and material composition. Echolocation is a learned understanding of sound waves, attested by teaching of both sighted persons as well as those without sight. To show the adaptive use of echolocation experiments demonstrate subjects able to echolocate the position of a moveable board after only ten minutes. The accuracy of echolocation is evidenced further by the playing of beep baseball in which blind players pitch, swing, and dive for a baseball that emits a beeping sound. The game differs from traditional baseball in that there are only two bases. When a player hits a ball one of the bases is activated and emits a buzzing noise, notifying the player where to run. This game relies on quick impulse recognition and reaction. The ability to track a fast-moving baseball simply through the sound it emits demonstrates the immense possibilities of hearing for perception.
In addition to the possibilities of sound, it is also important to understand some limitations. Most notably, distance is indistinguishable within two meters so it is an unattractive choice for purposes of close range. As a method of communication, the size, shape, and material of elements becomes important and could be used to communicate what is found within (see “Touch” pg 24).
The technologies introduced in the last decade have greatly reduced the cost of including sound in traditionally printed applications. Motion activated audio devices have been introduced to greeting cards, even allowing the user to record their own message for playback. In addition to these audio components, thin video devices have been introduced that would allow for communication by sound for people who are blind, with additional visual communication for those with sight. In 2009 CBS and Pepsi piloted a video advertisement for Los Angeles and New York subscribers of Entertainment Weekly that included twenty-five minutes of video accessible through navigational buttons allowing users to switch between video clips in the recording. The advertisement was powered by Americhip “video-in-print” technology (see Figure 1). The device has a small electronic screen powered by a lithium-ion battery that holds a charge for one hour. The device has a USB connection that allows it to be recharged and reloaded with new video. Americhip has already applied their video-in-print technology to books, magazine inserts, print collateral, packaging, and shelf displays.
In addition to using sound to read of information, it can be used in more indirect ways to signify location and make independent navigation a reality for people who are blind. These types of location indicators have been proven helpful for all people. Ikea, an international home products company, noticed that visitors to their stories had difficulty locating shopping carts. They introduced a subtle recording of these carts hitting one another near the cart corral and immediately noticed less people asking where the carts were. This type of audio inclusion would most definitely be beneficial for people who are blind as well. A recorded loop of sounds typically used in daily life would allow the same sound to be used in locating items even when no one else was present.
These examples are only a small glimpse of the potential applications available. Nearly all aspects of daily life that currently reduce the independence of people who are blind could benefit from the addition of audio, allowing people who are blind to increase their autonomy.
Smell is another distance sense as odors travel to the nostril through the air before objects reach the body. Like the ears, the nose contains two nostrils that can be useful in comparing smells across the nostrils to determine location. Because the nostrils are closer to one another than the ears, the location determination is not as strong for scent as with sound. The quick perception and retention of a scent does, however, set it apart from the other senses. A single perception of a scent is enough to associate it with earlier memories. Smell is also highly learnable. Scents that may not be perceived can be learned after only seven negative responses. The quick nature of adaptability would allow a system of scent communication to be created and learned easily.
Limitations of smell as a communicative device must consider the degree of smell loss with age. When trying to communicate through scent, caution must be taken to ensure the odors being used are strong enough and recognizable enough to be understood by people of all ages but not so overwhelming to be offensive. Information prescribing a perceptible range of scent was unavailable so these conclusions should be ascertained through research, trial, and error.
Smell has strong effects on human behavior and can be used both to communicate and promote behavior. The connection of scent to the emotional cortex of the brain enables it to arouse emotions, and scent recognition doesn’t require one to be conscious of it. Sensory marketing often aims to communicate on the subconscious level, utilizing differing scents to produce emotions. For example, grapefruit renders an energizing effect; nutmeg improves self-esteem; basil improves the memory; and citrus scents reduce suspicion. Behavior modification is even possible through scent; vanilla and clementine unconsciously make an individual stay longer in a location. It is through the intensity of a scent, distinct or subtle, that the distinction can be made consciously. Strong, distinct scents will be consciously perceived while subtle scents affect an individual unconsciously. It is prudent to mention that emotive scent associations differ by generation. The scents of childhood are an excellent example. Children from the first half of the 20th century associate natural scents with their childhood as they often were outside and homes rarely had air conditioning but were ventilated through open windows. Children from the second half of the 20th century, however, associate chemical scents with childhood as they were more accustomed to chemical laden household cleaners, air conditioning, and spent more time indoors than out.
Scent inclusion through Scratch N’ Sniff™ technology (see Figure 2) has been used in print since 1965 and in the magazine pull-apart perfume strip since 1981. While these two manufacturing processes are used primarily for advertisement purposes, they could easily be adapted as a communicative device. Scent inclusion in product packaging could easily distinguish between different flavors or scents of a product without necessitating additional text or Braille. Because the technology does not require color to be used, it could be applied to a flap of the package that also had printed text, freeing up space for Braille lettering elsewhere.
Emerging technologies allow scent inclusion through digital technologies as well. ScentScape™ (see Figure 3) is a digital scent delivery system that attaches to any computer or gaming system through a USB drive. ScentScape™ was developed by Scent Sciences Corporation in California and introduced at the 2011 CES exhibit, a showcase of the consumer technology industry. Intended for use with video games, ScentScape™ is equipped with software that coordinates with movies or video games to release pre-programmed scents at specific times during the timeline. The device offers twenty basic scents per cartridge. Much like with a printer, the cartridges can be replaced by consumers. Scent Sciences Corporation is also developing specialized scent cartridges to expand the offering of scents to fit particular themes like the ocean or holidays.
Taste is perhaps the most intimate of the senses as it is sensed by stimuli entering the mouth. Limitations for the use of taste in communication include the lessening perception of taste with age. Subtle tastes may not communicate well to those of all ages as the perception may be much weaker for older persons. For the perception of sweetness 1 part to 200 is needed; saltiness, 1 part to 400; sour, 1 part to 130,000; bitterness, 1 part to 2,000,000. The perception of taste is often thought to be congruent with flavor. However, the perception of flavor is dependent upon both the perception of taste and smell. Additional meaning can also be added to taste through the paring of more evocative and descriptive names. Studies demonstrate that sales increased by 27% from a change in the name only.
Taste may be the more difficult sense to evoke for communication as there is a necessary level of hygiene for its application. It is also cumbersome to distinguish taste as a separate entity as many of our taste perceptions are actually smelled. Despite these two challenges, a mainstream application is available to offer taste samples to consumers. Peel ‘n Taste® technology (see Figure 4) makes it possible for products to provide cost-effective samples of their brand’s taste and aroma, producing a true flavor. The result is a small strip that dissolves on the tongue, much like a breath strip. In 2008 Welch’s Grape Juice launched an advertisement in People magazine that included a grape flavored Peel ‘n Taste® strip. Results indicate that the advertisement generated the highest brand recall of all the ads in the issue of People. This example provides a glimpse of the value taste can have in effective communication.
The skin serves as eyes for people who are blind. Indeed, for people who lack sight, touch activates brain areas that are otherwise for visual processing, and it is common for people who are blind to use language of “seeing” things though many of them have never done so. Touch in print can range from the inclusion of a tactile language, like Braille, to the use of materials and surfaces.
Many materials can be used to communicate ideas and properties outside of the written language. Many things can be communicated on a subconscious level based upon its material, surface, temperature, weight, form, and stability. Heavier objects, for example, signify a higher quality product in contrast to lighter objects that may be referenced as “flimsy”. In addition to weight, textures can portray feelings. Wood, leather, and brick, for example, give warm, relaxed feelings while glass symbolizes quality. By choosing materials with properties related to the intended communication, a layer of meaning can be understood through touch alone.
Tactile patterns are another way to infuse meaning into design. Educational materials for children who are blind take advantage of this type of tactile distinction using raised and rough outlines to represent objects or the physical environment. The same treatment can be seen on tactile maps. These maps use a legend of textures to distinguish different items.
The most popular method of clearly communicating through touch is Braille. Braille has been used as a tactile language since 1825. While this language has developed greatly and is used by many, it is important to note that only ten percent of people who are blind in the United States use Braille. It is likely that the percentage of Braille users would increase if the inclusion of the tactile language were more widespread. Braille is not typically included in mainstream applications but must be sought out by people who are blind.
There are certain standards that apply to Braille that must be met in order for the language to be legible. Braille is a system of embossed dots arranged in quadrangular letter spaces called cells. Every character occupies the same amount of space regardless of how many dots compose it. To be legible, the height of the embossing must be sufficient from the background. The National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of the Library of Congress offers the following as specifications for Braille:
The nominal height of braille dots shall be 0.019 inches [0.48 mm] and shall be uniform within any given transcription. The nominal base diameter of braille dots shall be 0.057 inches [1.44 mm]. Cell spacing of dots shall conform to the following: The nominal distance from center to center of adjacent dots (horizontally or vertically, but not diagonally) in the same cell shall be 0.092 inches [2.340 mm]. The nominal distance from center to center of corresponding dots in adjacent cells shall be 0.245 inches [6.2 mm]. The nominal line spacing of braille cells from center to center of nearest corresponding dots in adjacent lines shall be 0.400 inches [1.000 cm].
In addition to these depth and width requirements, Braille, unlike other type, can’t be reduced, slanted, or varied. Another element necessary for Braille to be understood is a marker of the north edge of a sheet. If a sheet, package, poster, or other object is held in the wrong direction, the tactile communication will be illegible. These clear specifications are grounds to involve an experienced Braille manufacturer to participate in the incorporation of Braille in designs. Braille can be applied to surfaces through a variety of processes and techniques. It is also necessary for both sighted and tactile elements to be incorporated so that a person who is blind could ask for help from a sighted person.
Multiple Sensory Stimuli
The presence of multiple sensory stimuli can affect the perception of those stimuli. This is demonstrated with flavor which is a combination of both taste and smell. Without both senses working in tandem there would be no flavor. In less common examples the perception of touch can greatly be altered with the introduction of other senses. While smelling a lemon and touching a piece of material simultaneously the material feels softer. Hearing high pitch sounds make a surface feel smoother, and vibration will fool the nervous system and change the feel of a surface. In design the interaction of multiple sensory materials must be considered for the total effect, not just the impact of each piece of sensory data separately.
Shopping is an essential activity for adults in the United States, and yet, one of the most challenging activities for people who are blind. Many are forced to rely upon help from friends, family members, or store employees. The case studies below give evidence of the shopping methods used by people who are blind and the obstacles they encounter every day.
A total of nine individuals responded to questions about their shopping experiences. Responses were gathered from two primary sources: interviews in Louisville, Kentucky and from an online, asynchronous forum initiated and maintained by the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB), a national nonprofit organization for people who are blind. Respondents 1-3 live in Louisville which has a large and active population of people who are blind. Many of these residents work and are centralized around the American Printing House for the Blind, a producer of Braille and educational materials for people who are blind since 1858. Because of the strong community, many of these respondents are gainfully employed. In comparison, 70% of the blind are unemployed nationwide. Data was gathered within this community on October 14, 2011 during 20-30 minute interviews with respondents 1-3. Respondents were asked to describe their retail experiences, to list any difficulties, and to make suggestions for what would make their experiences easier. The remaining respondents 4-9 provided feedback in the form of open responses. All individuals are blind and chose to participate on the AFB online forum. The experiences shared were in response to questions posed to the forum and similar questions asked by others earlier in the year. These individuals were asked specifically about how they shop for groceries.
Respondent 1, Mobility Specialist
Respondent 1 is a male in his 40s. He has full vision but is connected to the blind community through his work as a mobility specialist. He trains people who are blind on how to use a cane and navigate the urban environment. Through his occupation he often works directly with people who are blind, particularly in regards to a retail environment. His experience points towards the use of alternative means of shopping including online shopping or other delivery services. He listed a local grocer that had purposefully created their website to accommodate orders by people who are blind. They also offer delivery service that many in that community use. Methods of navigating a traditional retail experience require the assistance of another person. He instructs students to make contact with managers at their local stores because they will often be the ones making sure the service is available.
Some items he mentioned as easy to distinguish and purchase by people who are blind are those that are of a tactile nature. An example given was a bag of regular M&M’s versus a bag of peanut M&M’s. The peanut M&M’s are larger and have an oval shape while the regular M&M’s are smaller and more circular. He said the difficulty comes when trying to distinguish the majority of items within the inner shelves of a store as similar packaging has a shared tactile experience. A can of peas, for example, feels exactly the same as a can of green beans. A distinction can only be made by looking at the cans, making differences impossible to perceive for people who are blind. Produce is much easier as its shape can be felt and its scent smelled.
Respondent 2, Recently Blind Woman
Respondent 2 is a female in her 40s. She is currently of good health although through an illness she lost her sight and became blind a few years ago. In learning to cope with the loss of sight she is currently unemployed and living at a local facility that helps people who are blind learn adaptive skills and transition to independent lifestyles. She mentioned that although she has memory of retail shopping, it is still difficult to complete the same tasks without her vision. She does some of her shopping online and relies on the help of store employees when shopping in a traditional retail environment. She mentioned that the grid system established in most stores is quite helpful for navigating the space. However, display stands that are placed in the middle of aisles or obstructing the main right-of-way makes navigation much more difficult. Recalling her experiences with sight, she mentioned the wayfinding that traditionally hangs from the ceiling and how it is ineffective for people who are blind. Even people who have partial sight and use magnifying aids are unable to see far enough away to distinguish the information.
This respondent often seeks aid from store employees when shopping in a traditional retail environment. She mentioned it is often unclear what to do when entering the store. Specifically, there are no directions to indicate where the service desk is located. She did not offer any suggestions but did mention that a solution would be extremely beneficial. The respondent also mentioned the difficulty in shopping within the aisles because subtle product differences, like flavors, are not something that can be distinguished without sight. She suggested that arranging items differently with some type of labeling system would be helpful, and the use of UPC scanning devices in the aisles that would allow an item to be scanned and the product information to be read audibly.
Respondent 3, Printing House Director
Respondent 3 is a male in his 30s. He is blind and currently employed as a social media coordinator. He focused mostly on the topic of online shopping and the accessibility of the online environment in general. He mentioned that many companies are simply unaware of what makes websites accessible. In his professional position he has relationships with several stores who have sought advice on the accessibility of their online retail environments. A few technical aspects he mentioned were the necessity of sites to be created in HTML versus Flash. Flash technology is entirely inaccessible as it translates through a screen reader as one large graphic, void of any text. In addition, the use of headings such as H1 or H2 tags allows for straightforward navigation between sections of content on a website and make using a site much easier.
This respondent referenced some online retail websites and their different approaches to accessibility, namely the two positions of accessibility versus normalization. Some sites choose to offer separate accessible websites. Other sites choose to have one website and incorporate accessibility features accordingly. His preference was to have one singular site because many companies with two sites often don’t offer the same product lines on each, leaving a wide range of products unavailable to people who are blind.
Respondents 4-10, Online Respodents
The following respondents participated in the online forum over the course of the previous year. They represent a much broader geographical range of the United States. The specifics of their locations and communities were not provided, but the comments are applicable to this study and the larger discussion regarding accessibility nationwide. 
One prominent theme from all of the respondents was the collective desire to shop and to do so independently. Respondent 6 stated explicitly that “I want to go shopping independently”. Other respondents are not as direct but hint at this desire. Respondent 9 references several visual amplifiers that can be used to allow for independent shopping. Respondents 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8 each note their use of online shopping. This indicates a collective desire to do so independently as the ability to procure goods online also means not having to seek assistance.
Methods of providing access were also mentioned. Respondent 10 made note that it is better to offer a design that incorporates those who do not have sight with those who do. He stated that doing so makes access affordable as the accommodation becomes a mainstream product and not a specialized segment. Respondent 3 also preferred normalized access available through websites.
In seeking to shop independently, respondents suggest three primary methods of retail shopping: delivery services, online shopping, and traditional retail shopping. Each method of procuring goods is viable under particular circumstances though each has limitations and aspects that are problematic. The following is a summary of those issues.
The grocery delivery service mentioned by respondent 1 has been a successful alternative means of access for people who are blind. It is prudent to note that the specific store mentioned was a local, privately-owned grocery store, and similar grocery stores would not be available to everyone across the country. It is also not likely that similar services would be available in every community, particularly smaller rural communities. There are no regulations that would require a store to offer delivery services. It would be up to individual retailers to provide.
Online shopping, as mentioned by respondent 1, is a wonderful resource for people who are blind. Respondents 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8 each cited this method as an avenue they regularly use to shop. Though many who are blind are unemployed, computer access is still available through public libraries and other avenues. This makes online shopping a realistic option even if someone does not own a computer. The major challenge of online shopping is the accessibility of websites for people who are blind. As indicated by respondent 3, some websites have two separate sites for those with sight and those without, and often these sites do not contain the same range of products. Amazon, for example, is an entirely web-based retailer and has two different websites. One site is for people who can see (www.amazon.com) and the other is a more accessible site for people who cannot (www.amazon.com/access). Though Amazon has made great efforts to make their site accessible, there are products that are not offered on the “access” version of their site, rendering people who are blind without access to the same variety of items. Amazon is not the only site to address access in this way. Many site owners desire highly interactive websites built with Flash technology which is inherently inaccessible to people who are blind as it is entirely image based and does not have a plain text equivalent.
Traditional Retail Shopping
Every respondent that discussed the traditional retail experience made note of the need to have assistance from someone else. Their experiences show that traditional retail shopping presents many obstacles for people who are blind. Respondents 1, 2, 4, and 5 noted their primary method of shopping in stores was to ask for help from an employee. This assistance is at the mercy of available employees who may not be trained to help someone who is blind. Some employees may be inexperienced or uncomfortable going around the store and shopping with someone that does not have sight. There is also an issue of staffing. If a person who is blind goes to a shop when the store is quite busy there may not be an available, qualified employee who can assist them, leaving that person to either wait until someone is available or return at a later time.
For individuals who wish to shop independently, there are several issues with the traditional retail environment that make doing so an impossibility. As revealed by respondent 2, there is a large issue with the wayfinding in retail environments. This is largely because the wayfinding signage is typically suspended from the ceiling, making it impossible to be touched. The second issue is the arrangement of items on the shelves. Items are often arranged by brand so that like varieties or flavors are not grouped together. As an example, cake mixes are not grouped logically to allow easy access. All strawberry or chocolate flavor cake mixes are not grouped together but are spread out according to brand. Aside from the arrangement of the packaging, there is no labeling system that is accessible.
Examining the barriers to access and the issues with each method of shopping reveals the traditional shopping environment as the most appropriate area for graphic designers to provide assistance. Delivery services are at the mercy of individual retailers and would require a shift in business model which is not typically under the influence of designers. Online shopping is an area that designers have great impact on, but specific guidelines already exist for building accessible websites.  This leaves the traditional shopping environment as the most appropriate instance for designers to exhibit innovation. Store layout, environmental graphics, and wayfinding are typically planned by graphic designers and are suitable as points for creating access. The collected data reinforces the sociological issues of access discussed previously. Architects and designers of retail environments are typically people who have sight, and it is unlikely that issues of access are routinely considered. The data accumulated through these interviews helps to identify otherwise unknown barriers that can be overcome.
A final point that was brought up through the case studies involves the important issue of how accessibility is provided. There are two widely held approaches to this issue. The first believes that the better way to offer accessibility is to create separate but equal alternatives. The National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLSBPH) is an example. The Library of Congress offers library services as a substitute for traditional libraries which do not offer materials for people who are blind. The NLSBPH does offer Braille alternatives and audio books for people who are blind. The National Library Service accommodates only people who are blind, and traditional libraries accommodate only people who are sighted. The two services provide separate but equal alternatives for acquiring literature.
The second consideration of accessibility believes the better way is to provide the same means of use for all people. This was indicated as the preferred method by respondents 3 and 10. A curb cut is an example of this type of accessibility. Curb cuts provide a gentle incline to transition from the road to the sidewalk. Curb cuts make it possible for those in wheelchairs or those with full mobility to travel through intersections in the same way. By simplifying the means of entry, this small design element allows everyone to have the same means of use, normalizing access for all. Watch pedestrian traffic patterns for only a few minutes, and it is clear that most people prefer curb cuts to the step up from road to sidewalk. Because this method of access is used by both the abled and disabled, there is no stigma attached, and the preferred method of access is available to all people. Similar accommodations for people who are blind have the same potential if only designers and manufacturers will concern themselves with the needs of the non-visual populace and seek to provide them with the same access and independence as the sighted have currently.
While accommodations for people who are blind is definitely a step in the right direction, it is not the best we, as designers and as a society, can do. As someone without disabilities, this may be difficult to understand which is why it is best to learn from someone who is blind. Ray Barfitt, a freelance writer, says it well:
“I believe that the vast majority of persons with disabilities would prefer to have their disabilities normalized rather than accommodated. Accommodation smacks of charity and paternalism and often robs us of dignity, self-respect and independence.”
Normalization is the better option, as it is the only option to provide equal access without requiring special devices or services. In thinking of the application of the following technologies, it is important to remember that simplification makes this type of accessibility attainable. Providing equal methods of use through a single design element grants independence to the disabled and breaks down stigmas and barriers often brought by their inability to function in the same way as others.
Allan G. Johnson is a sociologist who has written about privilege. In his book Privilege, Power, and Difference he has the following to say about the role individuals can play in systems of privilege:
Large numbers of people have sat on the sidelines and seen themselves as part of neither the problem nor the solution. Beyond this, however, they are far from homogeneous. Everyone is aware of people who intentionally act out in oppressive ways. But there is less attention given to the millions of people who know inequities exist and want to be part of the solution. Their silence and invisibility allow privilege and oppression to continue. Removing what silences them and stands in their way can tap an enormous potential of energy for change.
This is the call to arms for graphic designers. As communicators, we have the choice to “recognize inequities exist” and determine to become part of the solution. This means recognizing that purely visual communication denies access to an entire group of people and choosing to fight for work that offers access. Some designers are already accepting the challenge. The Italian company, Milk Depot, made efforts to include Braille labeling on their milk packaging in 2008. The Braille indicates the expiration date on each package and came as a result of requests from the Italian Association for the Blind and Visually Handicapped. This small change in the design of their packaging makes it possible for those without sight to access the same information that is available to those with sight.
Through the review of current conditions and the personal experiences described in the preceding case studies, it is evident that a desire to shop independently is active in the blind community. Despite those wishes, current design trends present barriers to access in the retail environment. The design community has yet to be a widespread force in accessible design, but designers have a large part to play in this as the architects of websites, environmental graphics, and wayfinding. A multitude of avenues exist for the application of the sensory methods outlined in this paper, and the best avenue for their inclusion would be dictated by the particular design objectives and outcomes for each project. What follows are suggested usages, meant to be a beginning for innovative thought, never an end. These suggestions will examine three main areas that are currently problematic and possible applications of sensory data to aid in navigation and access: retail wayfinding, shelf design, and packaging design.
Wayfinding can be extremely helpful when designed well, though current applications in the retail environment are inaccessible because of their location. By relocating these signs and incorporating tactile and audible data, retail stores could become much more accessible. Much like architectural signage, wayfinding should include Braille alternatives for text. With the inclusion of Braille, it is also imperative that signage is placed at a height within normal reach. Signage placed 60 inches from the floor to the center of the sign would allow for Braille text alternatives to be applied and easily reached by the average person. In addition to directional signage for each store department and store aisle, signage would direct people quickly to where they need to go after entering the building. Particularly for people who are blind, this could serve as a point of reference to where the service desk is located in relation to the entrance.
Wayfinding is also a good candidate for the incorporation of sensory data. Utilizing the Americhip, Inc. Video-in-Print technology, video components could be incorporated. For the sighted, incorporation of video components into traditionally static signage will arouse interest. For people who are blind, these video devices provide access to information without a proxy. By pressing a button information can be read out loud. Physical navigation could be improved with the inclusion of recording devices in-store directories. Department listings could include short video introductions allowing the sighted to see items they may be looking for and allowing blind people to hear the types of products located in those areas.
In addition to tapping into the sense of hearing, the sense of smell can also provide navigational data. It is not likely that one could drive past a barbeque smokehouse without noticing the aroma wafting from its interior. Using ScentScape™ technology this same occurrence could be used to signify locations within a store. Bathrooms, for example, might employ fresh cotton scents that would communicate their location and serve to reinforce their hygienic conditions. The dairy department might also use a subtle fragrance of cheese to indicate its location.
The design and placement of products on shelves are problematic to navigate without sight. Products are often grouped by brand, not by type, making it impossible to find like items without visually scanning the shelves. Through the inclusion of tactile and aromatic devices, this could be alleviated. A vast improvement could be made to shelf design by simply rearranging items. Grouping items by their similar nature rather than their brand would make finding a particular item much easier for both the sighted and the blind. Vertical shelf dividers could be used both to group these like items and to label that grouping. In the canned goods aisle, for example, peas could all be grouped together and have a vertical divider that visually labels the section as peas and includes Braille alternatives. By allowing these dividers to protrude a few inches past the normal shelf depth they would be easily found by all. In addition to tactile data, Scratch N’ Sniff technology could be used to vastly improve the shopping experience. These same dividers could incorporate this technology to indicate the flavor or scents found within each partition. This could extend beyond food to include other household items such as laundry detergent, home fragrance items, and personal products.
Packaging should be examined briefly for the multitude of possibilities available to include sensory data and increase access to each product. Because of the intimate way shoppers interact with packages, all of the senses could be applied to improve communication. Though it would likely not be appropriate or cost-effective to include all four of the senses in a single package, the potential for their inclusion is significant.
Audio or video devices that presented product information by pressing a button would quickly supply a wide range of information that might not be feasible to include in Braille. The Video-in-Print devices can be recycled and reused to help keep costs down and limit their environmental footprint. The inclusion of taste would make for the best application in direct communications like a package. Peel ‘n Taste could be incorporated into point-of-sale displays to offer a sample of a product’s flavor (see Figure 4). This type of application would create a greater sensory experience for all consumers and support claims of taste by manufacturers. For people who are blind, it would allow an understanding of flavor that may be described on a package but is too lengthy to translate in Braille. For products that are not intended for consumption, using Scratch N’ Sniff technology would allow the scent to be sampled instead. Though the surface area is limited on packages, certainly some information should be included in Braille, namely the product’s name and expiration date as this information is necessary to access after leaving the retail environment.
Designers must work towards an innovative design that communicates to people who are blind. The main ingredient in accessible design simply appears to be a consideration at the beginning of the design process. The Milk Depot packaging provides a clear case that designers are innovators and having identified a need are able to find realistic solutions, but this isn’t a quick fix mended on an existing design. Accessible design must be the goal from the beginning stages of conceptualization. To make this possible continued research and study of the barriers graphic design may create for those with disabilities is needed. By identifying the conditions that inhibit access, these issues can be addressed in future designs. Little activism or research exists in the design community on behalf of people who are blind. To devise more applications of sensory communications, further research is needed on the technologies and processes available to include such data. It is also necessary to examine in greater detail the ways in which people who are blind are being denied access and the areas of access that are most desired. As sociological research revealed, it is difficult for someone who does not suffer from discrimination to fully understand the extent of its effect on daily life. Only through reaching out to and gaining advice from people who are blind will designers be able to devise effective means of communication and the proper ways to provide access. Finally, additional research will no doubt lead to standardized guidelines for designing for people who are blind. Web design has an established system of guidelines for design that is accessible and similar guidelines are possible for print designers.
With the aforementioned lawsuits regarding accessibility, it is likely that legal proceedings and resulting legislation will become a driving force for design to change. Discussions are underway toward the inclusion of Braille on pharmaceutical packaging. Though plans to enact a law requiring these standards are not currently in motion, it is likely that they will be coming. Europe currently has similar laws in place, and the impact has been great for designers who must take the Braille placement and processes into consideration.
Finally, it is but a matter of time until the newest technology is replaced by something even newer. These introductions in technology have made possible the affordability of providing access and will continue to do so. It may even aid in the delivery of sensory data and make its inclusion easier.
Graphic designers must consider accessibility as a part of the design process in order to create accessible, inclusive work. They must identify obstacles and limitations of design geared toward the sighted and develop a working knowledge of sensory materials as ancillaries to visual design. The preceding research and interviews are intended to serve as a beginning for further discussion, allowing designers to become aware of the portion of the population without sight that very much needs their attention and consideration. Designers must think differently and creatively to communicate with inclusive design. To do so requires additional research and work on the part of designers, and in the end, shouldn’t successful graphic design overcome communication obstacles?
Visual Design Outcomes
The following graphics are intended to assist people who are blind and seek to live an autonomous lifestyle by shopping independently. Comprehension of the information assumes that the individual understands Braille and is familiar with tactile techniques that indicate shape and space planning. (These types of communicative devices are commonly taught to people who are blind. The majority of educational aids for children rely on embossed shapes for learning.)
My research revealed three barriers to the traditional retail environment: the necessity of assistance by others and potential issues that are presented by that need, wayfinding suspended from the ceiling, and the confusing arrangement of items on a shelf. The following case study offers solutions to all three issues.
The main barrier to independence is that the physical environment provides no cues for navigation. The wayfinding suggested here offers a solution for the current problems. By adding additional wayfinding to the end-caps of each aisle, in addition to the hanging signage, it is possible to allow for tactile communication. In addition to the information provided on each aisle, a store map at the entrance would provide an overview of the store arrangement and identification of where to find specific items.
Many brands and varieties have similar packaging that shares the same shape and weight. This similarity makes it difficult to distinguish one item from another by touch alone. The additional costs and necessary space for the application of all pertinent information make it unlikely that all manufacturers would add Braille to their packaging. A solution to this issue is to include price scanners at the ends of each aisle that would both display visually and read audible product information and pricing.
The preceding issues are the main barriers to shopping without assistance from another person. By addressing those issues, assistance would no longer be necessary.
Most grocery stores have two sets of doors with a small area between them. A map of the store would be placed in this area. No obstructions, such as carts or displays, should come between the map and the entrance. A clear path for walking up to the map is necessary for the Braille to be touched.
Within the map, each section of the store is represented with an icon that will be used again throughout the store on related navigational graphics.
Each aisle has an icon, label, and number. The aisle outline is embossed to indicate shape both visually and by touch. The icons similarly have an embossed outline.
Informational panels are designed to flank the sides of the end camp, allowing products to continue to occupy the space facing the outer aisles. The panels will have the same icon as the store map to indicate the aisle number and product type.
The center portion has the aisle number with an embossed outline to indicate the shape of the aisle icon. Inside the embossed area is Braille indicating the aisle name. On each side of the aisle is a listing of the contents found on that side. The side labels left and right, are also printed in the event that a person who is blind needs to ask a question about where to locate an item.
Also present is the price scanner. An embossed rectangle below the scanner indicates an area where a barcode can be scanned. Though the exact location of the barcode on a package may be unknown, moving the product around a scan should easily be achieved. To the left of the scanner is Braille with instructions to place an item in front of the embossed box to hear the item’s name and price.
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 Polly Welch, Strategies for Teaching Universal Design (Boston, Mass: Adaptive Environments, 1995)
Henry Herbert Goddard, The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1921), 51.
 “Buck vs. Bell Trial, Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement, http://www.eugenicsarchive.org/html/eugenics/static/themes/39.html (accessed 10 Sept. 2011).
 Care for the disabled was provided through various groups prior to World War I, however, the government had made no prior efforts to establish laws that would protect and care for disabled veterans until this time.
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 Jim Thatcher, Accessibility, Law and Target.com, (accessed 27 April 2010).
 ADA Accessibility Lawsuits Causing Headaches for Small Business Owners, (accessed 27 April 2010).
 One case was filed because the step from the curb into the store made accessing the business in a wheelchair impossible without assistance.
 ADA Accessibility Guidelines, (accessed 4 May 2010).
 Jim Thatcher, Accessibility, Law and Target.com, (accessed 27 April 2010).
 The NFB is the largest membership organization of people who are blind in the United States. The organization serves to improve the lives of people who are blind through advocacy, education, research, and programs that encourage independence.
 The ADA “require that State and local governments provide qualified individuals with disabilities equal access to their programs, services, or activities unless doing so would fundamentally alter the nature of their programs, services, or activities or would impose an undue burden. One way to help meet these requirements is to ensure that government websites have accessible features for people with disabilities…”
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 Coleen Belk and Virginia Borden, Biology: Science for Life (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc., 2004), 332.
 Ibid, 332-334.
 Tim Halliday, The Senses and Communication (New York: Springer, 1998), 43.
 Bertil Hultén et al., Sensory Marketing (Basingstoke, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), 18.
 Halliday, The Senses and Communication, 43.
 James Case, Sensory Mechanisms, (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1966), 44.
Cps stands for cycle per second and is a unit of frequency.
 Halliday, The Senses and Communication, 45.
 Lawrence D. Rosenblum, See what I’m saying: the extraordinary powers of our five senses, (New York: W.W. Norton, 2010), 8.
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 Hultén, Sensory Marketing, 7.
 Rosenblum, See What I’m Saying, 61-63.
 Brynie, Brain Sense, 55.
 Hultén, Sensory Marketing, 43.
 Ibid., 57.
 Ibid., 50.
 Ibid., 7.
 Ibid., 44.
 How Scratch and Sniff is Made, http://www.madehow.com/Volume-3/Scratch-and-Sniff.html (accessed 1 Sept. 2011).
 Scent Scienes Products, (accessed 1 Sept. 2011).
 Hultén, Sensory Marketing, 115.
 Hultén, Sensory Marketing, 119.
 Ibid., 117.
 First Flavor: Clients, http://www.firstflavor.com/welch-foods-grape-juice.html (accessed 1 Sept. 2011).
 Rosenblum, See What I’m Saying, 131.
 Hultén, Sensory Marketing, 142.
 Ibid., 140.
 Rosenblum, See What I’m Saying, 130.
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 Joseph W. Wiedel and Paul A. Groves, Tactual mapping : design, reproduction, reading, and interpretation, (Washington: Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1969), 14.
 Brynie, Brain Sense, 77.
 Ibid., 189.
 Brynie, Brain Sense, 77.
 Ibid., 19.
 NFB – Blindness Statistics, (accessed 30 Oct. 2011).
 A cctv is an electronic video magnifier used by individuals with low vision. The devices use a video camera to project a magnified image on a screen. A monocle is a single eyeglass used for close viewing. An ocutech is a telescopic device that enlarges items, making them easier to view.
 Accommodation Versus Normalization of Disability, http://www.blindcanadians.ca/publications/cbm/15/accommodation-versus-normalization-disability (accessed 20 Aug. 2011).
 Allan G. Johnson, Privilege, power, and difference, (New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006), 125.
 Rick Lingle, “Packaging World Magazine.” April 2008, 61.
 See page 20.
 See page 19.
 See page 19.
 See page 20.
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