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Using Consistent InDesign Styles

It is important within a multi-page document that similar elements are consistent and bring continuity to the entire document. It can be very time consuming to set all of your styling manually throughout a document, particularly if you decide later on that you want to change some element of the design. You would then have to go back through the entire document and make the adjustment to every instance of that element. Image if you are working on a 100 page book and had to make a change on every page. You would waste a lot of time trying to make manual adjustments.

To account for this InDesign has built in style options for objects, characters, and paragraphs. You set the styles, apply them throughout the document and then have the ability to quickly and easily make adjustments once that fix themselves throughout the entire document. If you are designing multiple pieces that need to have a similar look and feel you can also import styles between documents to save time and ensure that all of the styling remains consistent on each different document.

To create a new style (of any type)you will need to go to that style’s toolbar panel. In the bottom right-hand corner of the panel there will be a “Create new style” icon.


Object Styles


So far we have been discussing the different shapes of objects you can create and the types of media you can insert. Object styles define how the object, or frame, is formatted, not the the media within it. You could define an object style and then apply it to a text object or image object and the same effects would be applied.

After you create a new object style, you will need to double click on it to make adjustments to the properties. On the first screen there is a box to name the object style. You can name it anything you wish that will remind you of what the style will do.

At the bottom left of the object style pale there is a checkbox labeled Preview. Make sure this box is always checked so that you can live preview the adjustments you are making. It will save you time instead of needing to make an adjustment, click OK, preview the adjustment and then edit the object style again.

On the left there are different sections for attributes and effects that can be applied to the object. For purposes of running through the different I’m going to set up an object style for a pull quote that might be used in a newsletter design.

  1. Fill: you can choose a background color for the object.
  2. Stroke: where you can choose the color of the stroke, the thickness, and the type.
  3. Stroke: Below is the option to set the stroke joint and corner options. You can have squared joints or curved joints. You can also use this to add graphic elements to the start or end of a line.
  4. Paragraph styles: you can choose a preexisting paragraph style to always be applied to an object. For example, if you wanted to have a pull quote area that you used throughout the document you would likely want to always have the same text styling but also have the object have a background color. Applying the paragraph styles to the object save you from having to apply both an object style and a paragraph style. With one click you would apply both attributes.
  5. Text Frame General Options: here you can set a number of columns within a single option and also add padding within the object, or spacing between the text and the edge of the object. You can also set how you want the text to align vertically.
  6. Text Frame Baseline Options: won’t use
  7. Text Frame Auto Size Options: If you know that you always want an object to be set at a specific size regardless of the amount of content within you can set the auto sizing here.
  8. Story Options: won’t use
  9. Text Wrap & Other: Using the same example of the pull quote, you may want to always have text wrap around an object. You can set here how that will wrap and the amount of space to leave around the object.
  10. Anchored Object Options: won’t use

Character Styles


Character styles apply to selected portions of text within a paragraph. For example, you might have a sentence that needs a single italic word. You could set up a character style to apply to that single word (and other individual words or phrases throughout the document).

Just like with object styles you will need to first create a new character style and then double click on it to make adjustments to its properties. Again you will find a box to name the style for future reference and a preview checkbox to view your adjustments in real-time.

On the left there are different sections for attributes and effects that can be applied to the object.

  1. Basic Character Formats: you can set the different character formats of font family, sizing, leading, case, etc.
  2. Advanced Character Formats: won’t use
  3. Character Color: You can set a particular color for the characters
  4. OpenType Features: won’t use
  5. Underline Options: If you want text to have an underline you can set very specific styles for that here.
  6. Strike through Options: if you want text to have a strike through you can set very specific styles for that here.
  7. Export Tagging: used for creating non-print pieces like ebooks and HTML pages.

Paragraph Styles


Paragraph styles are similar to character styles except they apply to entire paragraphs, not just individual words within the paragraph. If you highlight a selection of words within the paragraph and apply the paragraph style it will still apply to the entire paragraph. Paragraphs are defined by when you hit a hard return, i.e. the return or enter key on your keyboard.
Just like with the other styles you will need to first create a new paragraph style and then double click on it to make adjustments to its properties. Again you will find a box to name the style for future reference and a preview checkbox to view your adjustments in real-time.

On the left there are different sections for attributes and effects that can be applied to the object.

  1. Basic Character Formats: you can set the different character formats of font family, sizing, leading, case, etc.
  2. Advanced Character Formats: won’t use
  3. Indents and Spacing: you can set how you want the paragraph to align and also how you want space around the paragraph to be set.
  4. Tabs: You can set the size of tabs
  5. Paragraph Rules: the rule is a line that would go above or below a paragraph. Like with the stroke you have options to set the weight, color and type.
  6. Keep Options: defines how many lines remain together to prevent a single line from being separated from the paragraph on another page or column.
  7. Hyphenation: options to be specific about when and how words are hyphenated.
  8. Justification: options to be specific about when and how lines are justified
  9. Span Columns: If you are using columns in your object you can set how the paragraphs will work within those columns.
  10. Drop Caps and Nested Styles: Allows you to make styles for setting drop cap letters within paragraphs
  11. GREP Style: these styles create formulas for automatically applying character styles within paragraphs. For example, you could set all words that have an apostrophe to be italic. It’s not likely you will need to use these.
  12. Bullets & Numbering: can set options for ordered or unordered lists and define the characters used for the bullets
  13. Character Color: You can set a particular color for the characters
  14. OpenType Features: won’t use
  15. Underline Options: If you want text to have an underline you can set very specific styles for that here.
  16. Strike through Options: if you want text to have a strike through you can set very specific styles for that here.
  17. Export Tagging: used for creating non-print pieces like ebooks and HTML pages.

Other Posts on Newsletters

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Common Elements of Newsletters

Most newsletters have standard elements that identify it as a newsletter and make it easy for readers to quickly find information. The article, 12 Parts of a Newsletter, outlines the common elements of newsletters. You may also notice that these elements tend to be common amongst all periodicals. Your newsletters don’t have to contain all of the common elements, but it is helpful to viewers to find a common formation.

The Nameplate, for example, is the quickest way of identifying a newsletter. The nameplate is a quick reference for viewers to see at a glance who the newsletter is from and when it was published. This is usually standardized and doesn’t change with each issue. The consistency from issue-to-issue becomes the main identification.

Some other elements may be needed based on the content and size of the newsletter. If your newsletter is very small, 2-4 pages, you may not need page numbers or a table of contents because the amount of content is so small. The number of articles you include and their respective layout can also help in deciding if end signs are necessary. If your articles are clearly separated on their own end signs may not be needed.

The bottom line in choose which elements to include is to ask yourself if that element will help the viewer make sense of the information. If the answer is yes, then you need to include the element. Conversely, if the answer is no, you don’t need to include the element.

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Design Theory: Proximity

One of the basic principles of design theory is proximity. The theory says that the closer items are in physical relation to one another the more they are related, or seen as a unit. As you start thinking about poster designs this week you will probably start by looking at a blank page in InDesign. Everyone’s first inclination is to fill every area of the page with content, spacing the content to take up space. Take a look at this event poster:

event poster design

The information fills the space and there is an interesting graphic element, but if you really wanted to know more about the event it requires some focus. It isn’t clear what information is more important or where to find information quickly at a glance.

If the same imagery and content is rearranged, grouping like information closer to each other and putting more space between different types of information it becomes much easier to take in the information at a glance.

event poster design option

In this design, the information has been broken apart into different content sections. The information at the top all relates to the name and time of the event. It is grouped together and made larger than the other information because it is the most vital information on the page. You want someone to first know what the event is and when it is being held.

Next, the specific information about the cost, location, and contact information is group together. These details are all supporting information and are grouped closer together, but still separated so that it is easier at a glance to tell that the first content block is cost, the second block of content is location, and the third block of content is contact info. This closer look shows block around the information. This isn’t included in the final design, but helps to visualize how the headings and details are grouped together but the content blocks are separated far enough from one another to make it clear what content is related.

content blocking on event poster

So how do you make this work for your own designs? Design is all about content. You first want to decide exactly what information needs to be on your poster. Weed out any information that you think isn’t relevant. Then you want to consider how to organize the information that is left. What information would be logically related? What information is distinctive from the rest? You may also want to think in terms of which is most important.

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Basics of the Grid in Design

The grid in design is a series of intersecting horizontal and vertical axes used to structure content throughout a document. Grids can be either loose and organic or rigorous and mechanical, as long as they provide a framework for the document that makes consistent use of alignment and repetition possible. Grids don’t dictate the design, but rather they support the intentions of the designer. The grid is made up of several different elements including margins, bleeds, columns and rows.

Anatomy of Grids

Columns & Rows

Columns are vertical divisions of space and rows are horizontal divisions of space. Columns are usually blocks of vertical space (as show in the illustration) separated by gutters that allow text to be place next to one another without touching and become jumbled. Columns also allow for large blocks of text to be set at an optimal width for reading, called line length. If a column is too wide it becomes difficult for your eye to track from the end of a line and back to the next line. When column widths are set at an optimal size there is no strain and the text is easier to read. The size of an optimal line length varies, but generally should be somewhere between 4 and 6 inches. If it becomes larger or smaller the text becomes more difficult to read.

Rows are sometimes called flowlines because they often play a supporting role as points of alignment rather than blocks of horizontal space. In the illustration above you will notice that the columns are separated by gutter space while the flowlines are simply linear indications are not separated by gutter space.

Together columns and rows form the basic structure of the page. The guides they provide aren’t visible in the final product, but the framework should be evident. The example below shows two pages from a multi-page document. I’ve drawn in the grid lines that were used to lay out the elements on the pages. You can see that from page to page there are similar placement of different items using the grid lines as points of alignment.

Thought the content is different on each page the layout appears consistent because the same grid was used.

The example below shows how a literal grid was used in the design. It is very evident where the columns and rows are used. Though not all design may have such an evident grid, it would be difficult find a design that is without a grid.


Margins define the active area of the compositional space and direct the viewer toward the visual elements. Margins can vary in size depending on the format of the page, as well as the textual and visual content of the design. Left and right, as well as top and bottom, margins can be equal all around or larger and smaller, depending on the proportions of the page. On double-page spreads, the inside margins must be large enough so that nothing is lost in the gutter. In addition, the margin space can be used for the placement of subordinate elements, including folios and footers.

Smaller margins increase the usable surface area of the composition, which accommodates complex designs with various visual elements. Larger margins decrease the active space of the page but increase the amount of white space, creating an open visual environment that is approachable, inviting, and soothing. For example, books of continuous text without extensive visuals benefit from large margins. Ample margins provide a stable compositional space that directs the viewer toward the positive areas of the design, while also leaving finger room to hold the piece.

Margins are not intended to trap the visual elements within the compositional space; they are used to activate the positive areas of the design. In many cases, the outer margins can be broken to allow the visual elements to move off the page. The implied movement expands the visual environment outside of the composition.


Most printers can’t print completely to the edge of a piece of paper. When you want your document to have images that extend to the very edge of a page you need to design with a bleed. A bleed is just a small extension of the page, usually .125 inches, that adjust the document to be printed at a slightly larger size and then trimmed to the correct size. The trimming ensures that the graphics extend to each edge.

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Choosing media types for a MultiMedia Presentation

When thinking about media types for use in multimedia presentations consider images, illustrations, charts and graphs, audio, and video files. All of these media elements will help translate written copy and strengthen the message. For your assignment this week, you will need to record either an audio or video file. The choice should be based on the initial presentation outline and take into consideration the content and the other supporting materials.

Choosing Media Types


The first thing to consider about audio files is the experience a viewer would have. What else will be going on while the audio file is playing? Will there be images going across the screen so they are engaging visually at the same time, or will the screen be blank while they listen to the audio file. Using an audio file while also putting text on the slide can make it difficult to digest all of the different information.

Secondly, how will the audio file fit in with the flow of the entire presentation? Are all of the other slides full of text and imagery? If so, then will the audio section be out of place?


When considering whether to use video in the presentation, again think about the viewer’s experience. Video has the ability to capture attention in a way that other types of media don’t. Are there elements of your organization that would be best shown in video format? If you have a particularly strong point to make, video may be an excellent option.

If you do choose video, the image you capture should be interesting. You wouldn’t, for example, want to have video of yourself simply sitting in front of the camera speaking. You might have similar video of someone unique and well-known in the arts or important to your organization.

Working with Audio

Recording digital audio files is really quite easy. You will a microphone and some very basic audio editing software. Most laptops, and many desktops, have built-in microphones as they are equipped for easy video conferencing. You may also be able to record audio on your phone. The iPhone, for example, allows you to record audio and do some basic edits with their built-in software. Some other options to consider might be handheld dictation devices, video recorders that will also record audio, tablets, or smartphones.

Tips for Recording Great Audio

Since this may be your first time recording an audio files, here are some tips to ensure the best quality audio recording:

  1. Get rid of as much ambient noise as possible
    Try to be alone in a room with as much technology (computers, fans, etc) turned off as possible. If you have a space with soft walls (think hanging quilts or padded cubicles), even better!
  2. Experiment with the position of the microphone
    Having it too close and too far away will result in a distorted pitch and allow more ambient noise to be picked up. You want it to be 6-12 inches from the speaker.
  3. Make sure your script is easy to read
    Read through the script several times to make sure there aren’t portions with difficult to pronounce words or phrases that might trip you up.
  4. Write a script
    You may think it will easier to ad lib, but often you will find this type of recording peppered with ummms and other fillers. Having a script to read from ensures you sound polished and professional.
  5. Read slowly
    Reading too quickly can make the recording feel rushed and if you are out of breath. Pace yourself to read slower than normal.
  6. Record blank space
    Record a few seconds of blank space at the beginning and end of your clip to make editing the clip easier.

Editing Audio Files

You will be relieved to know that you won’t be expected to perform professional level audio editing in this unit! You will need to do some basic edits that will ensure that the clip starts and ends appropriately, clipping off any blank space or ambient noises. After a few recordings you should have one that runs smoothly through the script and only needs the beginning and end adjusted to make it ready to use.

If you don’t have a recording device that can also edit audio files you will need software to do so. Luckily there are several free software options for both Windows and Mac platforms. Both of these are excellent options and each site has instructions on how to use their software:

Working with video

Much like the audio files, you will need a device that captures sound and also video. You may be able to use your same computer or smartphone. The iPhone, for example, allows you to record video and perform basic editing with their built-in software.

Tips for Recording Great Video
Here are some tips to ensure the best quality video recording:

  1. Start with a script
    Just as before, be sure to plan out exactly what you will be saying. You might even consider using a teleprompter app to play the script as you speak, or even using a PowerPoint or word document with large type to serve as a teleprompter.
  2. Use a tripod
    If you don’t have a tripod, be sure that your device is stabilized on a hard surface. A stack of books works just as well–feel free to improvise!
  3. Check the focus of your shot
    The distance of the camera from the subject can drastically affect the focus. Be sure to make the camera close enough to the subject to fill most of the frame.
  4. Check your lighting
    Make sure the lighting is bright, but not blinding. Always check this in the camera and make adjustments as needed.
  5. Smile!
    It’s important that you come across cheerful and engaged, and the best way is to make eye contact with the camera lens and smile.
  6. Prepare before you begin
    Once you hit record, take a moment to pause and smile at the camera. This will help you when editing your video and also allow you a moment to prepare for the recording.

Editing Video Files

If you have a Mac, then you already have easy-to-use video editing software built in, iMovie. There are some basic tutorials available online at

Windows machines began shipping with movie editing software this year. If you happen to have a computer running Windows 8 then you likely have Movie Maker installed. There are basic tutorials available online at

If for some reason you don’t have either of those programs you can also try the YouTube video editor. It lets you easily upload video clips and then trim and edit them as needed.

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Design Theory: Colors

Color is a powerful force that influences the actions we take on a daily basis. I’m not suggesting that colors have magical powers, but rather that they are used with repetition in society until the meaning becomes attached to the color. Once established, those meanings can be used to predict the psychology of viewers and influence decisions they make. Ever wonder why most banks use the color blue in their logos and branding? Blue has come to represent stability and trust. By using that color the banks are able to predict that you will trust them

Color Wheel & Color Schemes

The color wheel was originally credited to Sir Isaac Newton who joined the colors in the visible spectrum together to form a wheel. The color wheel lays out the primary, secondary, and tertiary colors in relationship to one another. This is useful in visualizing color combinations, especially for people starting out with this. The color wheel shown here has the primary colors in the center, the tertiary colors in the middle ring and the range of colors in the spectrum in the outside ring.

On way to choose color schemes is to focus on the primary, secondary, or tertiary color relationships. Choosing blue and red, for example, would be pairing primary colors. Using purple and orange would be pairing secondary colors together. Using teal and red-orange together would be pairing tertiary. Beyond that you can also choose analogous colors, or colors that are next to each other on the color wheel. Yellow and orange would be an analogous pairing and would feel very much similar. You could also use colors with high contrast by choosing complementary colors, or colors that are directly across from one another on the color wheel. The contrast brings a level of drama to the combination.
Color pairing, or color combinations are not an exact science. There aren’t two colors that don’t “go” together. The goal of pairing colors is to choose hues that represent the overall mood and meaning of your design.

Color Meaning

Color meanings are specific to cultures and become embedded in our minds. Take this example:

If you were driving in a car in the United States and saw someone holding this sign up you would instinctively stop. Even though this isn’t a typical traffic sign, the color red has been used repeatedly in stop signs and traffic lights to indicate that you should stop. Within the context of driving your car the color red has a specific meaning. Out of that context the meaning may be different.

More general color meanings can be broken down into three ranges of colors: warm, cool, and neutral.

Warm Colors

From Color Theory for Designers, Part 1: The Meaning of Color, by Smashing Magazine

Warm colors include red, orange, and yellow, and variations of those three colors. These are the colors of fire, of fall leaves, and of sunsets and sunrises, and are generally energizing, passionate, and positive.

Red and yellow are both primary colors, with orange falling in the middle, which means warm colors are all truly warm and aren’t created by combining a warm color with a cool color. Use warm colors in your designs to reflect passion, happiness, enthusiasm, and energy.

Cool Colors

From Color Theory for Designers, Part 1: The Meaning of Color, by Smashing Magazine

Cool colors include green, blue, and purple, are often more subdued than warm colors. They are the colors of night, of water, of nature, and are usually calming, relaxing, and somewhat reserved.

Blue is the only primary color within the cool spectrum, which means the other colors are created by combining blue with a warm color (yellow for green and red for purple). Greens take on some of the attributes of yellow, and purple takes on some of the attributes of red. Use cool colors in your designs to give a sense of calm or professionalism.

Neutral Colors

From Color Theory for Designers, Part 1: The Meaning of Color, by Smashing Magazine

Neutral colors often serve as the backdrop in design. They’re commonly combined with brighter accent colors. But they can also be used on their own in designs, and can create very sophisticated layouts. The meanings and impressions of neutral colors are much more affected by the colors that surround them than are warm and cool colors.

Quick Guide to Color Meanings

From Color Theory for Designers, Part 1: The Meaning of Color, by Smashing Magazine

While the information contained here might seem just a bit overwhelming, color theory is as much about the feeling a particular shade evokes than anything else. But here’s a quick reference guide for the common meanings of the colors discussed above:

  • Red: Passion, Love, Anger
  • Orange: Energy, Happiness, Vitality
  • Yellow: Happiness, Hope, Deceit
  • Green: New Beginnings, Abundance, Nature
  • Blue: Calm, Responsible, Sadness
  • Purple: Creativity, Royalty, Wealth
  • Black: Mystery, Elegance, Evil
  • Gray: Moody, Conservative, Formality
  • White: Purity, Cleanliness, Virtue
  • Brown: Nature, Wholesomeness, Dependability
  • Tan or Beige: Conservative, Piety, Dull
  • Cream or Ivory: Calm, Elegant, Purity

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Design Theory: Repetition

It is important that good design have continuity throughout all the different elements, which is achieved through the use of repetition. With this design theory, the elements that are repeated include typography, icons, colors, and graphic shapes. This can also include a general “look” of all of the images used. It can be easy to approach this thinking that you can just choose one typography style and one color, and wallah, you have consistency. The problem with an approach like that is that the design can become too monotonous and boring. There needs to be a balance between repeating elements and introducing distinctive elements that create interest.


Let’s look at this annual report design to see repetition in use. The first thing you will notice is the consistent use of two colors: green and gray. The color is used in every element, including the photographs. If the photographs had been full color they would have been visually interesting, but also have detracted from the sense of unity. There is also a consistent use of the circle shapes. The large graphic areas on the second page mirror the circular shapes on the left with the halftone pattern in the background. To balance this shape the text is kept in a more traditional rectangular shape. Incorporating all of the type in a circular block would have been an option to repeat the circular shape, but would have created a monotonous design.

This example shows how repetition was used in 8 different pages to create interest but also continuity. The most obvious point of repetition is through the use of color. The sea green color is used as a pop on each page drawing the eye to very specific elements on the page. This is contrasted with a black and white palette. Like in the previous piece the images here are black and white, making the sea green more prominent in the design. There is also a very strong use of shape throughout each page. The shapes are all very angular, with triangles, rectangles and straight lines. Even the type has been set tightly so that the text blocks create graphic shapes of their own. The use of typography also creates a repeated element. The headlines all have the same playful font while the paragraphs are all set in the same font with similar leading.

This newsletter example illustrates repetition in a specific type of design. The use of repetition isn’t quite as apparent as in the previous examples, but is still very evident. The images used are all in full color and the width of each image fits within one or two columns. There are also illustrations used similarly to bridge gaps between columns. If the illustrations had been used within a column in some places and between columns in other places the unity would be lost. The treatment of the headlines is another repeated element. The gray backgrounds behind the headlines vary in size and placement, but still create a sense of repetition throughout.

Hopefully these different examples illustrate a few ways that repetition can be used in design. Any element can really be used as a point of repetition. Color, typography, graphic shapes, images, placement, scale, line, and any other element of layout can be repeated for continuity.

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Digital vs. Offset Printing

When printing a project one of the first things to consider is how you will have a document printed. This is important because it will affect decisions you need to make at the beginning of the design process in terms of setting up your documents. As we discussed in unit 3, color setup is very different for offset printing and digital printing. If you can think ahead you can save yourself trouble and extra work later down the line.

Digital Printing

Digital printing is easily explained by thinking about your home inkjet printer. Most inkjets have 3-5 cartridges that convert your color during output. When you hit print on your computer the digital file is directly transferred to paper. Professional printers have digital presses that work like your home printer, but are calibrated to be much more exact in color output and print quality.

Digital printing is a great option when printing small jobs, usually less than 500 copies. Because the quantities are smaller the digital presses are often more efficient than an offset press because there is much less setup involved. They also allow for additional features to be added like variable text. Variable text takes a basic design and updates some portions of the copy on the fly for each person receiving the solicitation. If you were going to send a postcard you could personalize it with the name of each recipient. Because digital presses send design direction from a digital file to the final paper each copy can be unique in this way.

Offset Printing

Offset printing is also called lithography. It works on the basic principle that water and ink don’t mix. Think oil and water–the two repel one another. Large printing plates are created with the image on it, moistened, and dipped in ink. The water adheres to the non-image areas and the ink adheres to the image areas. Once the plate has picked up the ink it is transferred to a rubber blanket which is then pressed on the paper. Because the engraved plate doesn’t make direct contact with the paper, but uses the intermediary rubber blanket to transfer the ink, the name offset printing was coined.

Offset Printing

Illustration of offset printing process from

The illustration above shows how the paper is moved through the press. In the upper left you see that the water and ink are first picked up by the Plate Cylinder. The ink is then transferred to the rubber (blanket) cylinder and then transferred onto the paper. You will also notice that the image here is shown printed only in magenta. It is likely that the final output of this image would be in more realistic colors of blue, browns, and greens. This is only one pass of the paper. Each plate transfers a single color ink to the paper. It wouldn’t be feasible to transfer 10 solid colors for a single design, so the colors are separated into four colors–cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK)–and then applied on top of each other to create the full spectrum of colors. So, for a full color design the offset printing would actually print 4 separate colors on the paper that would mix to create the final product. If a design was created in just black and white there would only be one pass through the printer with black ink to print the full design all at once. This is why black and white printing is much less expensive than full color printing. It takes four times as long to achieve full color than it does black and white.

You’re probably thinking that this sounds like a more complex way of printing and may be wondering why everyone doesn’t use digital printing instead. Despite the complex nature of setting up offset printing it is extremely efficient in printing large quantities. If you are printing 500 or more copies of something offset will give you the lowest price. As your quantities increase, the price often doens’t increase much. So, if you’re trying to decide between printing 1,000 copies and 1,500 copies the price may be $800 and $850. The small margin of cost increase would make it more appealing to print more.

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